# Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene

@article{Novoselov2005TwodimensionalGO, title={Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene}, author={Kostya S. Novoselov and Andre K. Geim and S. V. Morozov and Da Jiang and Mikhail I. Katsnelson and Irina V. Grigorieva and Sergey. V. Dubonos and Anatoly Firsov}, journal={Nature}, year={2005}, volume={438}, pages={197-200} }

Quantum electrodynamics (resulting from the merger of quantum mechanics and relativity theory) has provided a clear understanding of phenomena ranging from particle physics to cosmology and from astrophysics to quantum chemistry. The ideas underlying quantum electrodynamics also influence the theory of condensed matter, but quantum relativistic effects are usually minute in the known experimental systems that can be described accurately by the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. Here we… Expand

#### Paper Mentions

#### 15,427 Citations

Quasiparticle dynamics in graphene

- Physics
- 2007

The effectively massless, relativistic behaviour of graphene’s charge carriers—known as Dirac fermions—is a result of its unique electronic structure, characterized by conical valence and conduction… Expand

Graphene: New bridge between condensed matter physics and quantum electrodynamics

- Physics
- 2007

Abstract Graphene is the first example of truly two-dimensional crystals—it is just one layer of carbon atoms. It turns out to be a gapless semiconductor with unique electronic properties resulting… Expand

Electronic properties of graphene in a strong magnetic field

- Physics
- 2011

We review the basic aspects of electrons in graphene (two-dimensional graphite) exposed to a strong perpendicular magnetic field. One of its most salient features is the relativistic quantum Hall… Expand

First direct observation of Dirac fermions in graphite

- Physics
- 2006

Originating from relativistic quantum field theory, Dirac fermions have been invoked recently to explain various peculiar phenomena in condensed-matter physics, including the novel quantum Hall… Expand

Quantum charged spinning massless particles in 2 + 1 dimensions

- Physics
- 2019

Motivated by the conduction properties of graphene discovered and studied in the last decades, we consider the quantum dynamics of a massless, charged, spin 1/2 relativistic particle in three… Expand

Observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene

- Physics, Medicine
- Nature
- 2009

The observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in ultraclean, suspended graphene is reported and it is shown that at low carrier density graphene becomes an insulator with a magnetic-field-tunable energy gap. Expand

Relativistic quantum effects of Dirac particles simulated by ultracold atoms

- Physics
- 2012

Quantum simulation is a powerful tool to study a variety of problems in physics, ranging from high-energy physics to condensed-matter physics. In this article, we review the recent theoretical and… Expand

Dynamical mean field study of the Dirac liquid

- Physics
- 2009

Renormalization is one of the basic notions of condensed matter physics. Based on the concept of renormalization, the Landau’s Fermi liquid theory has been able to explain, why despite the presence… Expand

Atomic collapse, Lorentz boosts, Klein scattering, and other quantum-relativistic phenomena in graphene

- Physics
- 2009

Abstract Electrons in graphene, which behave as massless relativistic Dirac particles, provide a new perspective on the relation between condensed matter and high-energy physics. We discuss atomic… Expand

Dirac equation for quasi-particles in graphene and quantum field theory of their Coulomb interaction

- Physics
- 2012

There is evidence for existence of massless Dirac quasiparticles in graphene, which satisfy Dirac equation in (1+2) dimensions near the so called Dirac points which lie at the corners at the… Expand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 59 REFERENCES

Quantum solid-state physics

- Physics
- 1989

This book treats the major problems of the quantum physics of solids, ranging from fundamental concepts to topical issues. Rather than use a deductive method of exposition, the authors consider and… Expand

Disorder effects in two-dimensional d-wave superconductors.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 1994

It is shown that, in a d-wave superconductor, the density of states, averaged over randomness, follows a nontrivial power-law behavior near the Fermi energy: $\rho(\omega) \sim |\omega|^{\alpha}$. Expand

Unconventional integer quantum Hall effect in graphene.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2005

It is demonstrated that monolayer graphite films have quasiparticle excitations that can be described by (2+1)-dimensional Dirac theory, which produces an unconventional form of the quantized Hall conductivity sigma(xy) = -(2e2/h)(2n+1) with n = 0, 1, ..., which notably distinguishes graphene from other materials where the integer quantum Hall effect was observed. Expand

Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional graphite system

- Physics
- 2002

Within a self-consistent Born approximation, the Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional graphite system in the presence of a magnetic field is studied by quantum transport theory. The Hall… Expand

Magnetic oscillations in planar systems with the Dirac-like spectrum of quasiparticle excitations. II. Transport properties

- Physics
- 2005

The quantum magnetic oscillations of electrical (Shubnikov-de Haas effect) and thermal conductivities are studied for graphene which represents a distinctive example of planar systems with a linear,… Expand

Magnetic oscillations in planar systems with the Dirac-like spectrum of quasiparticle excitations

- Physics
- 2004

The quantum magnetic oscillations are studied for planar condensed-matter systems with a linear, Dirac-like spectrum of quasiparticle excitations. We derive analytical expressions for magnetic… Expand

Manifestation of Berry's Phase in Metal Physics

- Physics
- 1999

It is shown that in crystals the semiclassical quantization condition for energy levels of electrons in the magnetic field depends on Berry’s phase. When the electron orbit links to the band-contact… Expand

Near Critical States of Random Dirac Fermions

- Physics
- 1997

Random Dirac fermions in a two-dimensional space are studied numerically. We realize them on a square lattice using the $\pi$-flux model with random hopping. The system preserves two symmetries, the… Expand

Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics.

- Materials Science, Physics
- 2004

We have produced ultrathin epitaxial graphite films which show remarkable 2D electron gas (2DEG) behavior. The films, composed of typically three graphene sheets, were grown by thermal decomposition… Expand

Localized states in a d-wave superconductor.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 1993

It is argued that even if the impurity concentration is small, the quasiparticles in the superconducting state become strongly localized for a short coherence length d-wave superconductor, which leads to thermally activated behavior for the microwave conductivity and possibly for the London penetration depth. Expand